Check Https Connectivity

Internet Addressing On the Internet you might have a Public IPv4 address like 255.227.30.27 or an IPv6 address like 2000:77f8:b274:c305:855a:d32e:b9be:d638. You can check this from https://test-ipv6.com/. Yet, for ‘non-techies’ to try and communicate these addresses, or even call out MAC addresses like 9a:6e:c0:ba:cb:66, it can be error prone and gets complicated quickly. Internet Addressing On the Internet you might have a Public IPv4 address like 255.227.30.27 or an IPv6 address like 2000:77f8:b274:c305:855a:d32e:b9be:d638. You can check this from https://test-ipv6.com/. Yet, for ‘non-techies’ to try and communicate these addresses, or even call out MAC addresses like 9a:6e:c0:ba:cb:66, it can be error prone and gets complicated quickly.

Internet Addressing

On the Internet you might have a Public IPv4 address like 255.227.30.27 or an IPv6 address like 2000:77f8:b274:c305:855a:d32e:b9be:d638. You can check this from https://test-ipv6.com/. Yet, for ‘non-techies’ to try and communicate these addresses, or even call out MAC addresses like 9a:6e:c0:ba:cb:66, it can be error prone and gets complicated quickly. Additionally, this doesn’t give you any historical data (especially back when previous problems occured).

Accessing the Web

To get to a web page like https://ortiz.net you initially access a DNS server to translate the host portion (ortiz) combined with the Top Level Domain (net) of the URL, to an IP address like 204.132.119.173. Your computer and browser actually sends its type with all web requests e.g.
Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/7.0; AS; rv:11.0) like Gecko

Default Gateways

Your default gateway is normally an automatically configured address via DHCP. You get a default gateway like 10.252.133.237 (though they normally end in .1 or .254 depending upon the scope size) and this is where your computer sends all its traffic to be routed onwards. For IPv6 we have a deep dive on how-to-fix-ipv6-connectivity/ but you can check on Mac or Linux with:

IPv4 (inc. VPN)

netstat -rn -f inet | egrep -i "default|0/1|128.0/1"

0/1      172.18.12.193  UGScg  utun3
default  10.252.133.237    UGScg  en0
128.0/1  172.18.12.193  UGSc   utun3

Note: We are not just looking for the default but also for any VPN that overrides the public v4 address space.

IPv6 (inc. VPN)

netstat -rn -f inet6 | egrep -i "default|2000::/3"

If you have IPv6 active the above should return at least one route (as per below) via a known interface such as “en0 " on a Mac.

default   fe80:d538:8fd7:da45:a327%en0  UGcg   en0
default   fe80::%utun0                   UGcIg  utun0
default   fe80::%utun1                   UGcIg  utun1
default   fe80::%utun2                   UGcIg  utun2
2000::/3  utun3                          USc    utun3

Note: We are not just looking for the default but also for any VPN that overrides the public v6 address space.

DHCP for IPv4 and IPv6

To get a look at the low level DHCP configuration (Mac/Linux):

ipconfig getpacket en0

...
domain_name_server (ip_mult): {216.32.78.213, 225.153.110.198}
end (none):
...

So, in the above we are not getting IPv6 DNS servers from the DHCPv4 reply but…

ipconfig getv6packet en0

DHCPv6 REPLY (7) Transaction ID 0x80940b Length 76
Options[4] = {
  CLIENTID (1) Length 14: DUID LLT HW 1 Time 668691856 Addr 9a:6e:c0:ba:cb:66
  DNS_SERVERS (23) Length 32: 2606:4700:4700::1111, 2001:4860:4860::8844
  DOMAIN_LIST (24) Length 0:  Invalid
  SERVERID (2) Length 10: DUID LL HW 1 Addr a7:5b:d5:4e:2b:e3
}

Wired or Wireless

At the physical and data layer you may be using a wired or wireless (Wi-Fi) medium to send this data towards your router.

Apple macOS / OSX

No matter what version of OSX/macOS you are on, 10.15.4, 11.5.9, or 12.2.3, there are a range of tools for troubleshooting. Unfortunately, between these manual actions and scripts, they don’t give you a series of correlated values over time. This is where automated remote troubleshooting comes in to its own, especially for teams that embrace remote work and Work From Anywhere (WFA).

Scripts

One very helpful tool on OSX/macOS is sudo wdutil info which gives a dump to the CLI of current wireless related settings, and this can be configured to also generate specific logs for troubleshooting. Additionally, and perhaps more comprehensively the sysdiagnose tool can be used to generate a whole host of logs (though much is point in time only in relation to wireless just like wdutil).

sudo nohup /usr/bin/sysdiagnose -u & will run it in the background and it will write logs to /var/tmp/<blah>.tar.gz for you. If you want to run it interactively (though there is not much interaction) you can run
sudo /usr/bin/sysdiagnose and it will give a privacy warning. When not run in the background it should open Finder in the correct location or you can then navigate to /var/tmp or use Finder with Cmd+Shift+G to point Finder to the path. Just beware the file sizes of about 300MB more or less.



Possible Helpful Videos

Video Title Channel
Internet Protocol - IPv4 vs IPv6 as Fast As Possible Techquickie
Why Does Your Internet Connection Randomly Stop Working? Techquickie
Why Wi-Fi 6 Will CHANGE Gaming Techquickie
Is Your Webcam SPYING On You? Techquickie
What Router Settings Should You Change? Techquickie
Table 1.0 - Video Help



P.S. PanSift Tip

Work From Anywhere requires reliable connectivity for all voice, video, and data. Inevitable issues cause individuals and teams to lose time and productivity while missing out on opportunities. Whether at home, in a coworking space, or in the office (and irrespective of network owner), forward thinking teams embrace smarter tools to save time and money. See how PanSift provides instant troubleshooting irrespective of location.

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