How Do You Support Common Wifi Internet Issues

The Functioning of Internet Addressing When using the Internet, a Public IPv4 address such as 117.155.219.189 or an IPv6 address like 2000:3d65:ae06:ed07:61ae:6735:aa41:b6f9 may be assigned to you. You can verify this information at https://test-ipv6.com/. However, for individuals who are not tech-savvy, conveying these addresses or referencing MAC addresses like ba:e2:be:3a:52:03 can be prone to errors and become complex quite rapidly. The Functioning of Internet Addressing When using the Internet, a Public IPv4 address such as 117.155.219.189 or an IPv6 address like 2000:3d65:ae06:ed07:61ae:6735:aa41:b6f9 may be assigned to you. You can verify this information at https://test-ipv6.com/. However, for individuals who are not tech-savvy, conveying these addresses or referencing MAC addresses like ba:e2:be:3a:52:03 can be prone to errors and become complex quite rapidly.

The Functioning of Internet Addressing

When using the Internet, a Public IPv4 address such as 117.155.219.189 or an IPv6 address like 2000:3d65:ae06:ed07:61ae:6735:aa41:b6f9 may be assigned to you. You can verify this information at https://test-ipv6.com/. However, for individuals who are not tech-savvy, conveying these addresses or referencing MAC addresses like ba:e2:be:3a:52:03 can be prone to errors and become complex quite rapidly. Furthermore, this method does not provide any historical data, especially from previous issues.

In order to access a webpage such as https://keebler-ruecker.biz, the first step is to contact a DNS server to convert the host segment (keebler-ruecker) combined with the Top Level Domain (biz) of the URL, into an IP address like 44.165.180.51. Your computer and browser actually convey its type with all web requests, for example,
Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_9_3) AppleWebKit/537.75.14 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/7.0.3 Safari/7046A194A

Understanding the Significance of Default Gateways

Your default gateway is typically an automatically configured address via DHCP. A default gateway such as 192.168.99.239 is assigned to you (though they usually end in .1 or .254 depending on the scope size) and this is the destination to which your computer directs all of its traffic to be routed further. For IPv6, a more detailed exploration can be found here, or you can verify it on Mac or Linux by:

IPv4 Routes and the Host IPv4 Route Table (inc. VPN)

netstat -rn -f inet | egrep -i "default|0/1|128.0/1"

0/1      172.18.12.193  UGScg  utun3
default  192.168.99.239    UGScg  en0
128.0/1  172.18.12.193  UGSc   utun3

Note: We are not just looking for the default but also for any VPN that overrides the public v4 address space.

IPv6 Routes and the Host IPv6 Route Table (inc. VPN)

netstat -rn -f inet6 | egrep -i "default|2000::/3"

If you have IPv6 active the above should return at least one route (as per below) via a known interface such as “en0 " on a Mac.

default   fe80:cde:82d6:7a92:6c88%en0  UGcg   en0
default   fe80::%utun0                   UGcIg  utun0
default   fe80::%utun1                   UGcIg  utun1
default   fe80::%utun2                   UGcIg  utun2
2000::/3  utun3                          USc    utun3

Note: We are not just looking for the default but also for any VPN that overrides the public v6 address space.

Debugging DHCP for both IPv4 and IPv6

To get a look at the low level DHCP configuration (Mac/Linux):

ipconfig getpacket en0

...
domain_name_server (ip_mult): {177.52.149.214, 169.185.220.179}
end (none):
...

So, in the above we are not getting IPv6 DNS servers from the DHCPv4 reply but…

ipconfig getv6packet en0

DHCPv6 REPLY (7) Transaction ID 0x80940b Length 76
Options[4] = {
  CLIENTID (1) Length 14: DUID LLT HW 1 Time 668691856 Addr ba:e2:be:3a:52:03
  DNS_SERVERS (23) Length 32: 2606:4700:4700::1111, 2001:4860:4860::8844
  DOMAIN_LIST (24) Length 0:  Invalid
  SERVERID (2) Length 10: DUID LL HW 1 Addr 12:9f:b6:da:dd:3f
}

Troubleshooting Connectivity Issues for Wired and Wireless Networks

When it comes to transmitting data to your router, you may be using either a wired or wireless (Wi-Fi) medium at the physical and data layer.

Resolving Network Problems on Apple macOS / OSX

No matter which version of OSX/macOS you are running - whether it’s 10.12.4, 11.4.1, or 12.1.2, there are various tools available for troubleshooting network issues. However, these tools do not provide a series of correlated values over time, making it challenging to identify the root cause of the problem. This is where automated remote troubleshooting becomes invaluable, particularly for teams that embrace remote work and work from anywhere (WFA).

Using Built-in Scripts for Assistance

On OSX/macOS, the sudo wdutil info tool is incredibly useful as it provides a dump of the current wireless settings to the command line interface (CLI) and can be configured to generate specific logs for troubleshooting. In addition, the sysdiagnose tool can generate a wide range of logs, although many are only relevant to a specific point in time in relation to wireless, similar to wdutil.

To run sysdiagnose in the background and generate logs in /var/tmp/<blah>.tar.gz, use the following command: sudo nohup /usr/bin/sysdiagnose -u &. If you prefer to run it interactively, you can use the command sudo /usr/bin/sysdiagnose, but be prepared for large file sizes of about 300MB.

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P.S. PanSift Tip For Work From Anywhere Support

Digital work requires reliable connectivity for voice, video, and data. Inevitable Wi-Fi, network, and system issues cause teams to lose time and productivity, or worse, to miss out on opportunities. Whether working from home, a shared space, or an office, and irrespective of the network being managed or unmanaged, forward thinking technical teams embrace smarter tools to save their users and clients time and money! See how PanSift provides instant remote troubleshooting, irrespective of location 🏠🏝🛰.

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