How Do You Understand MacOS Connectivity

The Basics of Internet Addressing When using the Internet, you will be assigned either a Public IPv4 address (e.g. 133.9.155.221) or an IPv6 address (e.g. 2000:c0a2:68:c22d:49cd:202f:bb7c:e73c). To verify your address, visit https://test-ipv6.com/. However, relaying these addresses, or even MAC addresses like e1:d0:6b:d6:ad:ed, to those unfamiliar with technology can be error-prone and complex. The Basics of Internet Addressing When using the Internet, you will be assigned either a Public IPv4 address (e.g. 133.9.155.221) or an IPv6 address (e.g. 2000:c0a2:68:c22d:49cd:202f:bb7c:e73c). To verify your address, visit https://test-ipv6.com/. However, relaying these addresses, or even MAC addresses like e1:d0:6b:d6:ad:ed, to those unfamiliar with technology can be error-prone and complex.

The Basics of Internet Addressing

When using the Internet, you will be assigned either a Public IPv4 address (e.g. 133.9.155.221) or an IPv6 address (e.g. 2000:c0a2:68:c22d:49cd:202f:bb7c:e73c). To verify your address, visit https://test-ipv6.com/. However, relaying these addresses, or even MAC addresses like e1:d0:6b:d6:ad:ed, to those unfamiliar with technology can be error-prone and complex. In addition, this information does not provide any historical data, particularly from previous incidents.

When accessing a web page such as https://steuber-cruickshank.name, you start by accessing a DNS server to convert the host portion (steuber-cruickshank) and the Top Level Domain (name) of the URL into an IP address, such as 251.58.61.99. Your computer and browser automatically send their type with all web requests, for example: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT x.y; Win64; x64; rv:10.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/10.0

Understanding the Significance of Default Gateways

Your default gateway is typically an address configured automatically through DHCP. This default gateway, such as 192.168.183.74 (although they usually end in .1 or .254 depending on the scope size), is where your computer sends all of its traffic to be routed forward. For IPv6, a comprehensive guide on how to fix IPv6 connectivity is available, but you can also check this on Mac or Linux using:

IPv4 Routes and the Host IPv4 Route Table (inc. VPN)

netstat -rn -f inet | egrep -i "default|0/1|128.0/1"

0/1      172.18.12.193  UGScg  utun3
default  192.168.183.74    UGScg  en0
128.0/1  172.18.12.193  UGSc   utun3

Note: We are not just looking for the default but also for any VPN that overrides the public v4 address space.

IPv6 Routes and the Host IPv6 Route Table (inc. VPN)

netstat -rn -f inet6 | egrep -i "default|2000::/3"

If you have IPv6 active the above should return at least one route (as per below) via a known interface such as “en0 " on a Mac.

default   fe80:40b7:7674:a20e:e675%en0  UGcg   en0
default   fe80::%utun0                   UGcIg  utun0
default   fe80::%utun1                   UGcIg  utun1
default   fe80::%utun2                   UGcIg  utun2
2000::/3  utun3                          USc    utun3

Note: We are not just looking for the default but also for any VPN that overrides the public v6 address space.

Debugging DHCP for both IPv4 and IPv6

To get a look at the low level DHCP configuration (Mac/Linux):

ipconfig getpacket en0

...
domain_name_server (ip_mult): {0.153.173.46, 207.76.141.203}
end (none):
...

So, in the above we are not getting IPv6 DNS servers from the DHCPv4 reply but…

ipconfig getv6packet en0

DHCPv6 REPLY (7) Transaction ID 0x80940b Length 76
Options[4] = {
  CLIENTID (1) Length 14: DUID LLT HW 1 Time 668691856 Addr e1:d0:6b:d6:ad:ed
  DNS_SERVERS (23) Length 32: 2606:4700:4700::1111, 2001:4860:4860::8844
  DOMAIN_LIST (24) Length 0:  Invalid
  SERVERID (2) Length 10: DUID LL HW 1 Addr 15:06:88:7c:29:a1
}

Resolving Issues with Wired or Wireless Connectivity

Whether you are using a wired or wireless (Wi-Fi) medium to transmit data to your router, issues can arise at the physical and data layer.

Addressing Problems on Apple macOS / OSX

Regardless of the version of OSX/macOS you are using, be it 10.13.5, 11.2.2, or 12.2.4, there are various tools available for troubleshooting. However, these manual actions and scripts do not provide a series of correlated values over time. This is where automated remote troubleshooting becomes valuable, particularly for teams embracing remote work and Work From Anywhere (WFA).

Utilizing Built-in Scripts for Assistance

One useful tool on OSX/macOS is the sudo wdutil info command, which provides a dump of current wireless settings to the command line interface and can be configured to generate specific logs for troubleshooting. Additionally, the sysdiagnose tool can be used to generate a wide range of logs, albeit many are only point-in-time related to wireless, similar to how wdutil functions.

The command sudo nohup /usr/bin/sysdiagnose -u & can be used to run sysdiagnose in the background, writing logs to /var/tmp/<blah>.tar.gz. If you prefer to run it interactively, you can use the command sudo /usr/bin/sysdiagnose, which will trigger a privacy warning. Running it without being in the background should open Finder in the correct location, or you can navigate to /var/tmp using Finder with Cmd+Shift+G. Keep in mind that the file sizes are around 300MB, more or less.

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P.S. PanSift Tip For Work From Anywhere Support

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