Understand Common Wifi Router Issues

Understanding Internet Addressing When using the internet, you are assigned a Public IPv4 address such as 84.160.10.192 or an IPv6 address like 2000:142f:6ea0:5fb:1fe7:3563:b3fe:f0b7. The website https://test-ipv6.com/ can help you check these addresses. However, communicating these addresses, or even mentioning MAC addresses like 07:0d:7c:e4:8a:4e, can be challenging, especially for those unfamiliar with technology. Understanding Internet Addressing When using the internet, you are assigned a Public IPv4 address such as 84.160.10.192 or an IPv6 address like 2000:142f:6ea0:5fb:1fe7:3563:b3fe:f0b7. The website https://test-ipv6.com/ can help you check these addresses. However, communicating these addresses, or even mentioning MAC addresses like 07:0d:7c:e4:8a:4e, can be challenging, especially for those unfamiliar with technology.

Understanding Internet Addressing

When using the internet, you are assigned a Public IPv4 address such as 84.160.10.192 or an IPv6 address like 2000:142f:6ea0:5fb:1fe7:3563:b3fe:f0b7. The website https://test-ipv6.com/ can help you check these addresses. However, communicating these addresses, or even mentioning MAC addresses like 07:0d:7c:e4:8a:4e, can be challenging, especially for those unfamiliar with technology. Moreover, this method does not provide any historical data, particularly from past issues.

In order to access a website such as https://larkin.biz, you initially connect to a DNS server to convert the host portion (larkin) along with the Top Level Domain (biz) of the URL, to an IP address like 206.49.140.125. Your computer and browser transmit its type with each web request, for example:
Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; AOL 9.7; AOLBuild 4343.19; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/5.0; FunWebProducts)

Significance of Default Gateways

By default, your gateway is automatically assigned through DHCP, typically ending with .1 or .254 depending on the scope size, such as 10.251.104.234. This is where your computer forwards all its traffic to be routed onwards. For IPv6, detailed information on how-to-fix-ipv6-connectivity/ can be found, and checking on Mac or Linux can be done with:

ip -6 route

IPv4 Routes and the Host IPv4 Route Table (inc. VPN)

netstat -rn -f inet | egrep -i "default|0/1|128.0/1"

0/1      172.18.12.193  UGScg  utun3
default  10.251.104.234    UGScg  en0
128.0/1  172.18.12.193  UGSc   utun3

Note: We are not just looking for the default but also for any VPN that overrides the public v4 address space.

IPv6 Routes and the Host IPv6 Route Table (inc. VPN)

netstat -rn -f inet6 | egrep -i "default|2000::/3"

If you have IPv6 active the above should return at least one route (as per below) via a known interface such as “en0 " on a Mac.

default   fe80:82d1:30e9:3713:fa91%en0  UGcg   en0
default   fe80::%utun0                   UGcIg  utun0
default   fe80::%utun1                   UGcIg  utun1
default   fe80::%utun2                   UGcIg  utun2
2000::/3  utun3                          USc    utun3

Note: We are not just looking for the default but also for any VPN that overrides the public v6 address space.

Debugging DHCP for both IPv4 and IPv6

To get a look at the low level DHCP configuration (Mac/Linux):

ipconfig getpacket en0

...
domain_name_server (ip_mult): {160.184.88.238, 62.33.129.14}
end (none):
...

So, in the above we are not getting IPv6 DNS servers from the DHCPv4 reply but…

ipconfig getv6packet en0

DHCPv6 REPLY (7) Transaction ID 0x80940b Length 76
Options[4] = {
  CLIENTID (1) Length 14: DUID LLT HW 1 Time 668691856 Addr 07:0d:7c:e4:8a:4e
  DNS_SERVERS (23) Length 32: 2606:4700:4700::1111, 2001:4860:4860::8844
  DOMAIN_LIST (24) Length 0:  Invalid
  SERVERID (2) Length 10: DUID LL HW 1 Addr e1:4a:ed:c6:d8:8e
}

Resolving Connectivity Issues with Wired or Wireless Networks

When it comes to transmitting data to your router at the physical and data layer, you might be using either a wired or wireless (Wi-Fi) medium.

Troubleshooting Tips for Apple macOS / OSX

No matter which version of OSX/macOS you are currently running - whether it’s 10.11.1, 11.4.7, or 12.0.9 - there are various tools available for troubleshooting. However, these manual actions and scripts fail to provide a series of correlated values over time. This is where automated remote troubleshooting becomes particularly valuable, especially for teams that are embracing remote work and the Work From Anywhere (WFA) concept.

In-Built Tools for Assistance

One extremely useful tool on OSX/macOS is sudo wdutil info, which provides a dump of current wireless settings to the command line interface (CLI). This tool can also be configured to generate specific logs for troubleshooting purposes. Another comprehensive option is the sysdiagnose tool, which can generate a wide range of logs, although much of it is related to wireless settings and is only a snapshot in time, similar to the wdutil tool.

To run the sysdiagnose tool in the background and have it write logs to /var/tmp/<blah>.tar.gz, you can use the command sudo nohup /usr/bin/sysdiagnose -u &. If you prefer to run it interactively, you can use sudo /usr/bin/sysdiagnose (although there is minimal interaction). Running it without the background option should open Finder in the correct location, or you can navigate to the path /var/tmp using Finder with Cmd+Shift+G. However, be mindful of the file sizes, which are typically around 300MB.

Possibly Helpful Videos

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Benefits of WPA3, Enhanced Open, and Easy Connect P. Ebbecke, P. Correll WLPC Prague 2018 Wireless LAN Professionals
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P.S. PanSift Tip For Work From Anywhere Support

Digital work requires reliable connectivity for voice, video, and data. Inevitable Wi-Fi, network, and system issues cause teams to lose time and productivity, or worse, to miss out on opportunities. Whether working from home, a shared space, or an office, and irrespective of the network being managed or unmanaged, forward thinking technical teams embrace smarter tools to save their users and clients time and money! See how PanSift provides instant remote troubleshooting, irrespective of location 🏠🏝🛰.

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